The Present Perfect is constructed by using the verb "have" in the Present Simple as an auxiliary and the Past Participle form of the verb.
+ Subject + Have/Has + Particple + Object
- Subject + Have not/Has not (Haven't/Hasn't) + Participle + Object
? Have/Has + Subject + Have/Has + Participle + Object?
The Participle form of the verb has no change so it is the auxiliary that changes with the subject.
I / you / we / you / they : Have
he / she / it : Has
We use the Present Perfect to talk about:
experiences in the past:
I have been to Madrid
without specific reference to time
A) I have been to Madrid
B) I went to Madrid last year
expereinces that have an impact on the present
He has hurt his arm (It still hurts now)
We have eaten too much (We still feel full now)
There are some words we can use with the Present Perfect that can add furthe rinformation or meaning to the tense. These "magic words" are discussed here
Spelling notes for the Particple form
The vast majority of verbs have a regular structure so the participle is formed by adding -ED to the end of the infinitive. There are some exceptions.
Irregular verbs are covered here.
Further functions of the Present Perfect
The Present Perfect Continuous