Present Perfect

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Form


The Present Perfect is constructed by using the verb "have" in the Present Simple as an auxiliary and the Past Participle form of the verb. 


+ Subject + Have/Has + Particple + Object

 - Subject + Have not/Has not (Haven't/Hasn't) + Participle + Object

? Have/Has + Subject + Have/Has + Participle + Object?


The Participle form of the verb has no change so it is the auxiliary that changes with the subject. 


I / you / we / you / they : Have

he / she / it : Has



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Function


We use the Present Perfect to talk about:


  • experiences in the past:


I have been to Madrid


  • without specific reference to time


Compare:


A) I have been to Madrid


B) I went to Madrid last year 


  • experiences that have an impact on the present


He has hurt his arm

(It still hurts now)


We have eaten too much

(We still feel full now)



Further Functions


There are some words we can use with the Present Perfect that can add further information or meaning to the tense. These "magic words" are discussed here



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Spelling notes for the Particple form


The vast majority of verbs have a regular structure so the participle is formed by adding -ED to the end of the infinitive. There are some exceptions. 


Irregular verbs are covered here.

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Related topics


Further functions of the Present Perfect


The Present Perfect Continuous