Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect Simple or Continuous
Past Perfect
Past Simple

The Past Simple Form & Function


Completed & finished events


Irregular Verbs

Past Simple 2

Further functions of the Past Simple


Talking about:


a definite time in the past


the past without reference to time


states in the past


habitual events in the past


the order of events in a narrative

Past Continuous

Form and functions of the Past Continuous


  • Events happening at a particular time in the past


  • Incomplete/interrupted actions in the past


  • Narrative tenses

Past Continuous 2

Ongoing or repeated events in the past


Temporary activities in the past


Activities subject to change


Repeated, unplanned or unwanted events in the past


Context of a past event


Past Simple or Past Continuous

When to use the Past Simple or Past Continuous?


Emphasis


Completed/Incomplete events or actions

Used to

To refer to things that are no longer true


Used to or Would


Used to or be used to

Present Perfect

Form and function for Present Perfect


  • experiences in the past without specific reference to time

  • experiences in the past with an effect



Present Perfect 2

Further functions of the Present Perfect


Been & Gone


Ever & Never


For & Since


Already & Yet


Still & Just

Past Simple or Present Perfect

Definite time in the past


Time to the Present

Present Perfect Continuous

Form and Function of the Present Perfect Continuous


  • One ongoing action


  • Recent past activities


  • Repeated ongoing events


  • Use with How long...?

Present Perfect Simple or Cont
Irregular Verbs

A guide to Irregular verb structure

Patterns of sound and tools for learning and using irregular verbs