Conditionals are often referred to as "IF" clauses. We use existing tense structures to form a pair of clauses which represent Consequence and Action, or Cause and Effect.

IF + ACTION , CONSEQUENCE

The clauses can be inverted so instead of I A, C we can use conditional structures as C I A (Consequence If Action).

NOTE: The comma is vital to separate the clauses. If we invert the structure the "If" separates the action and consequence

Type 0 Conditionals

ZERO : IF +  PRESENT SIMPLE , PRESENT SIMPLE

Form & Function


Statement of truth or fact


Inevtibale consequence of an action

Type I Conditionals

FIRST : IF + PRESENT SIMPLE , WILL + INFINITIVE

Form & Function


Possible or likely consequence


Supposition, predictin of future truth

Type II Conditionals

SECOND : IF + PAST SIMPLE , WOULD + INFINITIVE

Form & Function


Unlikely or Hypothetical scenarios


Advice

Type III Conditionals

THIRD : IF + PAST PERFECT , WOULD + HAVE + PATICIPLE

Form & Function


Impossible consequence


Unreal


Regret

Mixed Conditionals

Functions of mixed conditionals


Use with unless or wish

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