Present Simple 2
We use the Present Simple to:
give instructions and directions
This is often done using words to signify the order of instructions, such as: first, second, then, lastly, etc.
You catch the number 23 bus and get off at the stop after the harbour.
First, open the paper and then read the questions carefully. Write your answers on the answer paper. Do not write on the question paper.
tell stories and giving commentaries
The present simple can often be used to describe a series of actions in order. This is especially true in narratives.
Ben doesn't like the cold, but he takes the dog out for a walk anyway. The neighbours know he is out as the dog barks at everything and everyone.
The present simple is used to give sports commentary to report on actions as they occur
Gilman passes to Morris. The defender fouls him but the referee waves play on and Keane scores!
We can use the present simple with verbs that "perform" the act that they describe (Performative Utterances)
I promise to study harder
I don't agree with you
This use is also seen in legal or formal language
I attach the documents for your review
I write to confirm receipt of your resignation
(a formal alternative to I'm writing to confirm....)
The present simple is often used in news headlines to report events in the past. This emphasis immediacy and provides a sense of drama
Dog eats homework
US delegation arrives in London
Manager quits at half time
Present Simple form and function here
Facts/Opinions/Habitual Actions. Exceptions & Spelling notes
Present Continuous form and function here
What is happening now
Present Continuous further functions here
Temporary states/Repeated actions/Change/Criticism of consistent behaviour
Present Simple or Present Continuous here
Permananent or Temporary states/Stative or Dynamic verbs