The Mods and Rockers were two youth subcultures that emerged in the UK in the early 1960s and left a lasting impact on fashion, music and popular culture
The Mods: A Youth Subculture Defined by Fashion and Music
The Mods, short for modernists, were known for their impeccable fashion sense and love of music, particularly ska, soul and R&B. Their style emerged in London, England, in the mid-1960s, as a response to the traditional conservative fashion of the time. Born out of a youth culture based in cafes across England, they rejected the traditional values of their parents and embraced a more modern and progressive lifestyle. They favoured a clean, smart, and tailored look, often wearing suits and riding scooters. Early mods watched French and Italian art films and read Italian magazines to look for style ideas. They usually held semi-skilled manual jobs or low grade white-collar positions such as a clerk, messenger or office boy. Mods created a parody of the consumer society that they lived in.
Their attention to fashion and rage against previous generations was summed up in the lyrics of the song My Generation by The Who: "Hope I die before I get old." The Mods were also associated with the British Invasion bands of the time, such as The Kinks and The Small Faces.
"I don't wanna be like everybody else. That's why I'm a mod, see?" - Jimmy, Quadrophenia.
Quadrophenia is a 1979 British film that has become an iconic representation of the Mod movement of the 1960s. Based on the 1973 rock opera of the same name by The Who, the film follows the story of Jimmy, a young Mod struggling to find his place in the world. Since its release, Quadrophenia has become a cult classic and an important representation of the Mod movement. It has inspired numerous tributes, homages and influenced various music genres to this very day.
The Rockers: A Rebellious Subculture Influenced by Rock and Roll and Motorcycle Culture
The Rockers, leather boys, ton-up boys, café racers or more commonly ‘greasers,’ on the other hand, were more interested in rock and roll music and motorcycle culture. A little about their various names:
Rocker – this didn’t actually come from an association with the music, rather it was due to the rockers in 4-stroke engines contrary to the 2-stroke engines found in scooters.
Leather boy – much like the namesake 1964 film ‘The Leather boys’ the style involved being dressed from head to toe in leather.
Ton-up boys – in England, a ton is slang for 100, in this context it refers to 100mph (miles per hour) as the Rockers saw it as a challenge to get their bikes up and over this speed during street races.
Café racers – bikers would often spend their time in roadside cafes where they would race around the neighbourhood and challenge each other to do circuits before a record had finished.
Greaser – due to the constant maintenance they performed on their own bikes, this term was often used as a derogatory term by the cleaner, impeccably dressed Mods.
Rockers favoured a more rebellious and rugged look, wearing leather jackets, no helmet and riding motorcycles. The Rockers were associated with rock and roll bands like Elvis Presley and Eddie Cochran. They emerged from the end of post-war rationing in the UK, a rise in prosperity for working class youths, the recent availability of credit and financing for young people, the influence of American popular music and films, the construction of race track-like arterial roads around British cities, the development of transport cafes and a peak in British motorcycle engineering.
The Rivalry and Cultural Impact of Mods and Rockers
The Mods and Rockers had a rivalry that was fuelled by their differences in fashion and music tastes. However, their influence on fashion, culture, and music of the 60s went beyond just their rivalry. Both subcultures had a significant impact on the fashion and music scenes of the time, with the Mods influencing the popularity of suits and the Rockers influencing the popularity of leather jackets, two distinct and contrary styles.
The Battle of Brighton: The Legacy of Mods and Rockers
One famous altercation between the two subcultures occurred in 1964 in the seaside town of Brighton, known as the Battle of Brighton which featured in the film Quadrophenia. On the Easter weekend of that year, large groups of Mods and Rockers descended on the town, leading to violence and clashes with the police. The incident received widespread media coverage and brought the Mods and Rockers into the public consciousness.
Despite their differences, both the Mods and Rockers were important cultural phenomena of the 1960s that had a lasting influence on fashion, music, and popular culture. The Mod and Rocker subcultures may no longer be as prominent as they were in the 60s, but their influence can still be seen in contemporary fashion and music.